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ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS

 

Besides the ancient towns and settlements there are a lot of memorial- cult architectural monuments-the masterpieces of the architects of the IX-XII centuries- scattered all over the territory of Tajikistan. While erecting monumental architecture in IX-X, the raw brick was replaced by the burnt brick. The architectural methods had been changed as well: elliptical arches and vaults were replaced by lancet; the methods of erecting domes on the arch sail had been improved; the burnt brick become the main construction material in decorating the architectural monuments.

If during IX-X centuries the main setting for facades and interier of buildings was burnt brickwork, then from the beginning XII century intensive many-coloured decorative tile is introduced, which later completely coats the architectural and constructive foundation of the buildings. In XIII century, in Mongolian invasion to Central Asia, no significant building was saved. In XIV-XV centuries, during the rule of Timur and Timurids the architecture entered new stage, characterized by magnificent decorations of the constructed buildings. The monuments of IX-XII centuries are the Mausoleum medrese compound of Khodja Mashhad and mausoleum "Khodja Durbod". They are located in the village Saiyod in Shahritus region, and are the unique work of the ancient architectures. If the mausoleum "Khodja Durbod" was built from the burnt brick, then the mausoleum "Khodja Sarboz" (XI-XII) near Saiyod was built from the raw brick. It has square planning and cupola-shaped ceiling with eight arch sails and apertures. In Kabadiyan and Shahtitus regions, there are various architectural monuments, erected from the raw brick, such as Lailakr Uya, Ak- Mazar and others. The unique mausoleums are "Mavlono Obiddin" and "Mavlono Tojiddin" in Dangara region, built in the X-XII. The unique masterpiece of the wooden architecture is mazar in the village Chorku (X-XII) near Isfara. In XI- XIII centuries the mausoleum "Khodja Nakshron" (present Tursunzoda) was build, which continuous the tradition of the architectural method, initiated in Khodja Mashhad. Here one can see that the skilful application of figure brick works reaches perfection, making impression of refinement of decorative colonnade. At the same time the mausoleum of "Muhammad Bashoro" in Penjikent was being build. The burial-vault of Amir Said Hamadoni in Kulob has the peculiar planning.

The mosque "Abdullatif Sultan" in Uroteppa (XV) is a pattern of rare type of Friday mosque palace. The

mausoleum "Abduqodir Jeloni" (XI-XVI) has the unusual refined decorative interior. Unique is the burial-vault of Sheik Muslihitdin" in Khujand.

The particular architectural monument of the XIV-XV centuries is the mausoleum "Makdumi Azam" and the

Sangin mosque in Hissar region.

The tradition of architectural decor, having achieved its acme in the epoch of Samanids, can be seen in the following epochs. The architectural monuments in Ura-teppe are the Mausoleum-Ensemble Sari-Mazor" (XVI) consisting of the two-portal mausoleum; a mosque; and a building for the unknown purpose "Ajina khona"; the mosque "Bobo Tagho" (XVI), a mausoleum "Hudoyera Valyami", a mosque - mausoleum "Hazrati Shoh" (XVIII). They are known by their refined decoration of interior and facade. All these monuments are invaluable cultural heritage and treasury of the Tajik people.

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